immune functions by using medicinal plants and their products as
a possible therapeutic measure has become fundamental principles
of therapeutic approach. Plants and minerals have been used
since ancient times for the treatment of many ailments and
diseases. It is now being recognized that immunomodulation of
immune response could provide an alternative to conventional
chemotherapy for a variety of disease conditions, especially
when host's defense mechanism have to be activated under the
conditions of impaired immune responsiveness or when a selective
immunosuppression has to be induced in situation like autoimmune
disorders and organ transplantation.
1. In the present study,
aqueous extract of Cassia
Trigonella foenum-graecum (METHI),
Delphinium denudatum (JADWAR) and
Anthum graveolens (SOWA) showed no mortality and apparent
toxicity signs and symptoms in the treated animals.
Among all the herbs, Cassia
occidentalis and Trigonella
foenum-graecum showed the stimulatory effect on specific and
non-specific immunity. It is also interesting to note that in
spite of reduction in spleen weight and its cellularity no
suppressive effect was observed in spleen associated functions
(antibody production as measured by PFC assay and antibody titre).
It is suggested that these plants may be beneficial in ongoing
showed dual effect on immune functions. It suppressed the
humoral immunity and stimulated the cell mediated and
non-specific immunity. This herb may not be good candidate for
immunomodulatory activities. Anthum graveolens depicted no effect on immune functions at any dose
used in this study. These reports highlight the needs for
further study, in particular to investigate the possible action
of C. occidentalis, T. foenum-graecum, D. denudatum extracts and their
components in interfering with cytokine production.
In this study, C.
foenum-graecum and D. denudatum showed antitumor and antibacterial activities against
ehrlic’h ascites tumor cell line and S. typhimurium
4. During the
functioning of immune system, such as in phagocytosis and
respiratory burst activity, reactive oxygen species are
generated, if they are left unchecked they may lead to
peroxidative damage to other tissue. In this investigation all
the herbs showed an inhibition effect on in the lipid
peroxidation in both the liver and kidney.
role of plant extract on drug metabolizing enzymes and
antioxidants was investigated. The extracts of C. occidentalis and D.
denudatum showed significant decrease in the level of
cytochrome P450 in the both the liver and kidney of
mice. However, no effect was observed in case of T.
foenum-graecum at any dose level. These observations of C.
occidentalis and D.
denudatum might be indicative of inhibition of oxidative
metabolic processes and thereby a blocking of the activation of
xenobiotic compounds including toxic chemicals. There is
persuasive evidence to support the induction of glutathione S-transferase
and protection against a wide spectrum of cytotoxic, mutagenic
and carcinogenic chemicals. All the plant extracts showed
significant increase in the activity of glutathione S-transferase
in both the liver and kidney.
Modulation of hepatic and nephrotic detoxification
enzymes by these herbs plays an important role in the
detoxification of drugs and chemicals. It is therefore proposed
that use of C.
occidentalis, and T.
foenum-graecum may be helpful in patients suffering from
immunosuppression and they may also provide relief by
facilitating fast detoxification of drugs that are known to
cause toxicity in the patients undergoing chemotherapy. Anti-mutagenic
and hepatoprotective effect of C.
occidentalis are well established in animals. It is also an
important constituent of Ayurveda and Unani formulations.
Further investigation in animals and human are warranted on this
Title "Studies On the Neurotoxicology Of Argemone oil"
Name of Student: ALMAS SIDDIQUI (email@example.com)
Department: Medical Elementology &Toxicology, Faculty of Science
Name of Supervisor: Dr. Fakhrul.Islam (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Source of funding: Central Council of Research in Unani medicine (CCRUM)
Date of Viva Voce: December 20, 2002
Chapter 1 describes the in vivo protection of argemone oil induced neurotoxicity by Argemone mexicana aqueous extract. All the rats were sacrificed and their brain were dissected out for the estimations of Na+ K+ ATPase, lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione content and the activity of glutathione metabolizing enzymes, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase and serum was used for the study of the marker enzymes of hepatotoxicity; serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) & serum glutamate oxaloactate transaminase (SGOT). Argemone oil depleted the content and activity of all the above parameters significantly and increase the activity of SGPT & SGOT. The A. mexicana aqueous extract protected the activity of Na+ K+ ATPase, GPx, GR, GST and content of GSH to a significant level and brings down the activity of SGPT & SGOT and the content lipid peroxide in brain when compared to the group treated with argemone oil alone. These results indicate that prophylactic treatment of A. mexicana aqueous extract offered partial protection against argemone oil induced neurotoxicity and hepatotoxicity.
Chapter 2 describes the in vivo protection of argemone oil induced neuro & hepatotoxicity by argemone maxicana aqueous extract for a period of 15days.. On day 16th all the rats were sacrificed and there brain parts and liver were dissected out for the estimations of lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and the activity of glutathione metabolizing enzymes, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase. The Argemone maxicana aqueous extract was found to be helpful in up regulating the enzymes activity to a significant level and lowering down the lipid peroxidation in brain areas as well as in liver when compared with argemone oil treated group. These results indicate that prophylactic treatment of Argemone mexicana aqueous extract offered partial protection against argemone oil induced toxicity in discrete brain areas and liver.
Chapter 3 describes the in vivo effect of acute and sub acute doses of argemone oil on antioxidant status in striatum, hypothalamus, hippocampus & thalamus. Adult male Wistar rats (125±10 g) from Jamia Hamdard animal breeding colony were used in this study and kept on commercial pellet diet and water ad libitum for 12 hr light and dark cycle each. The animals were divided into four groups two control and two experimental each having 8 rats. Group 1 and 2 received intra peritoneal (i.p) injection of saline for 3 and 15 days respectively which served as control. The group 3 and group 4 received argemone oil 1.5 mL/kg b wt & 0.2 mL/kg b wt through i.p. route for3 and 15 days respectively. On day 16th animals were sacrificed and brain regions were dissected out for estimations of lipid peroxidation, glutathione & its metabolizing enzymes; glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase. These results suggest that a lower dose of argemone oil when given for longer duration is more toxic as compare to the higher dose which was given for short duration.
Chapter 4 describes the in vivo effect of argemone oil on antioxidant status, dopamine (DA) and its metabolite dihydroxy phenyl acetic acid (DOPAC) in striatum, hypothalamus, hippocampus & thalamus regions of the brain. The SGPT and SGOT were estimated in the serum of the animals. The male albino rats (125±10g) were divided into 4 groups each having 8 animals. The group I received normal saline i.p. for 14 days. Group II, III & IV received argemone oil 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 ml/kg b.wt (i.p.) respectively for 14 days. On day 15, all the animals were sacrificed and brain regions were dissected out for estimations of DA, DOPAC, lipid peroxidation, glutathione & its metabolizing enzymes; glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase. It has elevated the level of DA and DOPAC in all the regions significantly and dose dependently. Argemone oil has depleted the level of reduced glutathione and the activity of its dependent enzymes and increase the content of LPO at the dose of 0.1 & 0.2 ml/kg, but no significant changes were observed with 0.05 ml/kg. The argemone oil (0.1 & 0.2 ml/kg) doses has increased the activity of SGPT and SGOT but no significant changes were observed with 0.05 ml/kg argemone oil. Our results suggest that use of argemone oil at lower doses might be of therapeutic importance in the diseases where there is a potential loss of dopamine take place.
Argemone oil shows its acute and subacute as well as dose dependent toxicity in whole brain as well as in discrete areas of brain; Striatum, hypothalamus, hippocampus and thalamus..Oral supplementation of aqueous extract of A. mexicana stem & leave shows the protective effect on the brain and liver.At lower doses, argemone oil might have some beneficial effect in neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson's and Huntingtoncorea where there is a severe loss of Dopamine as argemone oil enhances the level of Dopamine and its metabolite DOPAC without any apparent signs of toxicity
"Nature Has Provided Toxicity and Remedy In the Same Plant"
Title: ‘Phytochemical investigation of some plants used in Indian
system of medicine.’
Name of the student: Hinna Hamid (email@example.com)
Name of the supervisor: Dr. M.S. Alam
Date of Viva Voce: 31st December 2002
The present research work involves isolation and
characterization of twenty-three compounds, including nineteen
new compounds isolated from the extracts of four different
plants. Various extracts of these plants have also been screened
for their anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antibacterial
Quercus Infectoria Olivier
is a small tree, which yields galls that find extensive use as
antiseptic, against inflammation and eczema, in the treatment of
piles, dysentery and diarrhea. The compounds isolated from this
new protocatechuic acid ester, named as infectoyl ester [M+
characterized as 2,6-dimethylprotocatechuic
acid methyl ester.
novel phenolic compound, named as quercanaphthalene [M+
252, C12H12O6] characterized as
new ellagic acid glycoside, named as quercoside [M+
772, C32 H36 O22] characterised
as ellagic acid-4-O-[b-D-glucopyranosyl]-10-O-[b-D-glucopyranosyl]-(4®1)-b-D-rhamnopyranoside.
Uraria lagopoides D.C. (Fabaceae)
is a trailing perennial herb is prescribed as an
alcoholic extract in inflammation of chest and remittent fever.
It cures asthma, fevers, dysentery, delirium, ulcers and is good
for tumors, malarial fevers, eye diseases and fractures of
bones. The compounds isolated from this plant include.
new hydrocarbon, named as Urariane, [M+ 618, C44
H90], characterized as n-tetratetracontane
new molecule, designated as Uraroic acid A [M+ 554, C33
H62O6] characterized as n-7¢-carboxylic-heptacosanyl-glutarate.
unreported acidic compound, designated as Uraroic acid B [M+
498, C30 H58O5] characterized
as n-nonacosan-5-ol-1, 13-dioic acid.
novel sterol, called urariosterol [M+ 416, C29
H52O], characterized as 8,14-13,17-diseco-stigmast-5,
unknown acid, given the name Uraroic acid C [M+ 280,
C17H28O3], identified as 4,12-dimethyl-n-tetradeca-6,8,10-trien-1-ol-3-oic
known steroid glycoside, characterized as stigmasta-5-en-3-b-D-glucopyranoside [M+ 577, C35 H61O6]
unknown triterpene glycoside, given the name Urarialanostenoside
[M+ 913, C48 H82O16]
characterized as Lanost-9(11)-en-3-O-b-D-glucopyranosyl-(4®1)-D-glucopyranosyl-(4®1)-D-glucopyranoside.
Astragalus hamosus Linn.
(Fabaceae) An annual herb, has been reported to be
emollient, demulcent, aphrodisiac, diuretic, laxative and good
for inflammation, ulcers and leucoderma.
The compounds isolated from this plant include.
unknown hydrocarbon, named Hamosane [M+ 310, C22
H46], which was identified as 10-methyl-n-heneicosane.
known sterol, namely b-sitosterol [M+ 414, C29
new phenolic molecule called Hamosol [M+ 164, C11
H16O] characterized as 2,3,4-trimethyl-5-ethyl
novel phenol designated as Astragalone [M+ 424, C26H32O5],
characterized as 1-(n-undeca-3-on-yl)-3,4,6-trihydroxy-7-methoxy-antharacene.
known sterol glycoside i.e., b-sitosterol glycoside
acid characterized as Benzene-2-acetaldehyde-1-oic-3-O-b-D-glucopyranoside .
Hamoside, characterized as 1,6-dihydroxy-4-methoxy-7-O-b-D-glucopyranosyl naphthalene.
known disaccharide identified as sucrose
Lavatera kashmeriana J.C
(Malvaceae).The compounds isolated from this plant
new sesterpene, called Lavaterone [M+ 362, C25
H46O] identified as 11-(4,8,10-trimethyl
unknown homoditerpene designated as Lavaterepene [M+
306, C22 H42], characterized as 4,8,10-timethyl-9-(13,16-dimethyl
new molecule named Lavateral, [M+ 230, C13
H11O4], identified as 2¢,3,3¢-trihydroxy-2-formyl biphenyl.
novel sterol glycoside named as Lavaterosterol [M+
578, C35 H62O6] characterized
unreported glucuronic acid derivative named as Lavateronic acid
[M+ 274, C12 H18O7]
characterised as 2,4,hexadienyl-1-b-D-glucuronic acid.
Various plant extracts were also evaluated for their anti-inflammatory,
analgesic and antibacterial activity.
Orally administered aqueous extracts (200 mg/Kg body wt.) of U. lagopoides and A. hamosus showed
significant inhibition (62.54,
65.41, respectively) of carageenan induced rat paw edema in
comparison to standard, indomethacin (76.68). They also showed
marked inhibition (62.16, 60.71, respectively) of acetic acid
induced writhing in mice in comparison to standard, acetyl
salicylic acid (71.59). Orally administered alcoholic
extracts of U.
lagopoides, in doses 200 and 100 mg/Kg body wt. showed
significant inhibition 70.25 and 60.13, respectively, of rat paw
edema induced by carageenan. The orally administered alcoholic
extracts of A. hamosus,
in same doses inhibited the rat paw edema by 69.93 and 63.02
percent. Orally administered alcoholic
extracts of U.
lagopoides, in dosages 200 and 100 mg/Kg body wt. showed
significant inhibition 65.99 and 59.24 of writhing induced by
acetic acid, further alcoholic extracts of A. hamosus inhibited the acetic acid induced writhing in mice by
67.16 and 58.35 percent, respectively.
The aqueous and alcoholic extracts of L.
kashmeriana failed to show inhibition in both the tests.
Petroleum ether, chloroform and alcohol extracts of U.
lagopoides, A. hamosus and L. kashmeriana in
various concentrations were found to be active against
Gram-positive bacteria, while as only the alcohol
extracts of these plants showed significant activity against
Gram-negative bacteria. Chloroform extract of L.
kashmeriana also showed a weak activity against
and Pharmacogistical studies on Some Indian Medicinal Plants.’
Name of the student: Syed
Name of the supervisor: Dr.
Date of Viva Voce: 24th
present research work involves isolation and characterization of
twenty-six compounds, including nineteen new compounds isolated
from the extracts of three different plants, their
standardization and biological evaluation for their
anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities.
A lichen of family Parmaleaceae, known for its emollient, tonic,
febrifuge, diuretic, demulcent and sedative properties yielded
29, 30-nordimethyl-lanost-2-ene, named parmelialanostene
named parmenaphthone A
named parmenaphthone B
stilbene, named Parmenal
benzoate, named parmelyl ester A
benzoate, named Atranorin.
(3-aldehydic-4-hydroxy-2,6-dimethyl) benzoate, named parmelyl
named parmelupenol A
named parmelupenol B
naphthyl ether, named parmenone.
plant has antioxidant, antihaemorrhagic, hepatotoxic,
antineoplastic, antiallergenic, antibacterial and antiviral
properties. Dried roots are considered to be useful in
alleviating dropsy, paralysis, jaundice, amenorrhoa and visceral
obstruction. It exerts uricolytic activities and thus promotes
disintegration as well as elimination of urinary stone. The
1-hydroxy-3-carboxy-6-ethyl-9, 10-anthraquinone, named as
1,3-dihydroxy-2-methyl-9, 10-anthraquinone, named
1,3-dihydroxy-9, 10-anthraquinone, named Xanthopurpurin
1, 2-dihydroxy-9, 10-anthraquinone, named Alizarin.
1-methyl-2, 4-dihydroxy-9, 10-anthraquinone named as
Urs- 12- en-3b-ol,
1-hydroxy-3-ethyl-9, 10-anthraquinone, named as
phenanthranene, named Cordifodiol.
plant has refrigerant, antipyretic, cathartic and aphrodisiac
activity. It has been used to treat burns and back pain and the
alcoholic extract has antifungal activity against Trichophyton
named as Maritimone
n-heptacos-18,20,22-trien-1-ol, named as Rumexenol,
acid, named as Rumexoic
named as Rumexenone
named as Maritiaspongiene.
of these plants exhibited significant anti-inflammatory and
anti- bacterial activity against staphylococcus aureus (G+).
parameters included morphological and microscopical characters,
Physiochemical properties and TLC fingerprints.
No. December 2002/08
Title: "Role of
Nitric oxide in Pressure overload Cardiac Hypertrophy"
Faculty: Center for Biotechnology, Faculty of Science
Name of student: Srinivas M. Tipparaju
Supervisor: Professor S K Jain, Dr M P Dubey
Date of viva-voce: 16-12-2002
hypertrophy has reached epidemic proportions worldwide and with
no solid evidence of an independent benefit beyond blood
pressure control newer therapeutic strategies have to be
designed. It has been known since long that hypertension leads
to hypertrophy, which disrupts the normal homeostatic
mechanisms. We undertook this problem with a view to understand
the mechanisms involved in the hypertrophic (two-kidney
one-clip; 2K1C) heart subjected to ischemia-reperfusion or
study was divided into two parts, the first dealing with the
calcium regulatory mechanisms and the second with the Nitric
Oxide to assess the performance of hypertrophic hearts during
ischemia-reperfusion injury. Evaluation was done for both
functional and cellular responses by performing contraction
studies and peroxynitrite estimations in whole heart
preparations, whereas intracellular calcium, nitrite/nitrate
ratio and total ROS estimations were done in myocytes.
Assessment was done using various nitric oxide modulators such
as L-NAME (NOS inhibitor), SNP (NO donor), L-arginine (NO
supplement) and uric acid (ONOO- scavenger). The
results suggest that Nitric oxide synthase inhibition by L-NAME
offers a strong strategy that gives protection to the
hypertrophic heart during ischemia-reperfusion injury, in terms
of functional changes and providing protection from cytotoxic
effects of peroxynitrite. At cellular level it lowered
intracellular calcium transients, attenuated reactive oxygen
species generation and maintained a stable mitochondrial
and NO taking center-stage during ischemia-reperfusion injury,
this is the first time that an elaborate cross talk between
these two key events has being reported in the hypertrophic rat
Title: Studies On Antitumour
Activity Of Indole-3-Carbinol In Experimental Animals.
Name of Student: Ms Bhawna Srivastava
Department: Medical Elementology & Toxicology, Faculty Of
Supervisor: Dr Y. Shukla (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Toxicology Research Center, Lucknow.
Co-Supervisor: Dr S. Raisuddin (email@example.com)
Date of Viva ATE OF VIVA Voce: January 08, 2003.
dissertation it has been tried to evaluate the antitumour
activity of Indole-3-carbinol in the living beings. For this
purpose Swiss albino
mice were selected. This study was conducted in Industrial
toxicology & research center, LUCKNOW. Detailed
investigations involving tumour
developing techniques & histological techniques were
used to demonstrate I3C action.
antimutagenic, anti-tumourogenic & anti-tumour promoting
activity were studied using tumourogenic & tumour
promoting chemicals. These chemicals included 7,
12dimethylbenz (a)anthracene(DMBA), Benzo(a)
Pyrene(BaP),Cyclophosphamide(CP) & 12-0,tetra
decanoylphorbol-13acetate(TPA). Along with this cytotoxity of
I3C was observed on Ehrlich ascites cells. BaP & DMBA are
widely occurring Polycyclic
hydrocarbons. CP is prominently used anti-cancer drug showing
its effect on cells due to its mutagencity. To show anti-mutagenicity
& anti-genotoxicity of I3C CPwas used as a positive
control.Here study was conducted on bone marrowcells of mice. CP
has been shown to Cross Link with DNA both in vitro & invivo
& thus induces
point mutations. CP directly affect cell divison by inhibiting
Mitotic index. I3C also mildly shows inhibition of Mitotic
Index. But when given with CP shows decrease of cytotoxicity of
skin model was used to show antitumourogenic activity of I3C
when it was applied topically on skin either one hour prior or
one hour after carcinogen administration . I3C showed tumour
initiation in both methods but it was more pronounced when it
was applied after carcinogen application. Parameters used to
show this were
tumor induction time ,average tumour per mouse ,percentage of
animals with tumour and
cumulative number of tumours. For anti tumour promotion activity of I3C two stage skin model was used . A sub carcinogenic dose of
DMBA was applied on skin then I3C was applied
topically prior to application of TPA a well known tumour
promoter. Here also the parameters were the same as in previous
experiment which demonstrated antitumourogenic activity of I3C.
I3C has been shown to increase life span of Ehrlich ascites tumour
bearing mice.It also showed
EA cells.These investigations and experiments showing
anticarcinogenic& antimutagenic potential of I3C
involving an array of skin tumour model, transplantable
tumour model& mutagenicity test have provided important information that I3C can be used as adjuvant for
Title: Studies on modulatory role of antioxidants against
immunotoxicity of anticancer drugs
Name of the student: Mr. Rizwanul Haque (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Department of Medical Elementology & Toxicology, Faculty of
Supervisor: Dr. S. Raisuddin (email@example.com)
Source of funding: CCRUM & CSIR (Govt. of India)
Date of viva voce: January 10, 2003
There are many synthetic and
natural chemotherapeutic agents available for the treatment of
cancer but none of them is effective alone. Some of the most
widely used chemotherapeutic agents are doxorubicin, cisplantin,
methotrexate, mitomycine and cyclophosphamide. Cyclophosphamide
(CP) remains the most widely used alkylating agent used in
cancer chemotherapy and still extensively studied both
clinically and experimentally. Because of its widespread use
side effects with CP treatment are frequently reported. The
immunosuppressive effects of CP are the major cause of concern
believed that used of immunomodulating herbs and/ or
antioxidants may provide great relief from the side effects of
CP in the patients. The present study was undertaken to
assess potential of some antioxidant agents in the form of
herbal extracts and purified antioxidant compounds in abrogating
toxicity of CP in mice. In this study, three herbal extracts viz;
Emblica officinalis, Juglans
regia and Ginkgo
biloba and two well-known antioxidants viz; vitamin C and
catechin have been used.
All the plant extracts
alone and in combination with CP-treated animals showed
improvement in the cellularity of lymphoid organs.
Plant extracts treatment caused a significant improvement
in humoral immunity, cell mediated immunity and non-specific
immune functions in CP-treated animals.
Animals treated with vitamin C (10 mg/kg body weight)
showed no improvement in the relative organ weights. Vitamin C
and catechin along with CP restored the specific and
non-specific immune response.
showed appreciable tumor inhibitory activity in Ehrlich ascites
tumor challenged animals. It also showed an increase in
percentage survival time and showed reduction in the mean body
weight of tumor bearing mice.
A significant reduction was observed in cytochrome P450
content in liver and kidney of E.
officinalis and in kidney of J.
regia treated animals where as no change was observed in G.
bioloba treated animals. Ginkgo
and J, regia extract
along with CP resulted in a significant improvement in the Cyt.
P450 content in both the tissues. Extracts of E.
officinalis and J.
regia did not show induction in the glutathione S-transferase
(GST) activtiy except G. biloba. All the three plants showed restoration in the activities
of GST in CP-treated animals in both the tissues. J.
regia and G. biloba extracts significantly induced reduced glutathione (GSH)
levels in both the tissues (liver and kidney) whereas induction
by E. officinalis was
not significant. These plants also restored the depleted level
of GSH in CP treated animals. Almost all the plant extracts
showed significant augmentation in the activities of antioxidant
enzymes in both the tissues especially in CP intoxicated mice.
Vitamin C alone failed to
stimulate the drug metabolizing enzymes effectively in kidney
but in combination with CP showed an improvement in the
cytochrome P450 content in both the tissues. Vitamin
C did not induce GST and GPx in control animals but it restored
the depleted levels of GST, glutathione peroxidase (GPx),
superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in CP treated
animals. Catechin + CP treatment showed a significant
improvement in the content of Cyt. P450 in liver and
kidney as compared to CP treated animals. Catechin and catechin
+ CP groups showed a significant induction in the activity of
CAT, SOD, GPx, GST and in the level of GSH in liver and kidney
except glutathione peroxidase in the kidney.
CP-treated animals that were
administered plant extracts
and antioxidant compounds showed a decreased LPO level in
kidney and liver as compared to CP-treated animals.
number of natural antioxidants and herbal preparations are
available to scavenge the reactive oxygen species and modulate
the immune system. It is the need of hour to conduct detailed
studies on selected natural antioxidant compounds that have
potential to modulate the immune system as well as suppress the
toxicity of the synthetic drugs used for the treatment of
therapy could provide an alternative to conventional
chemotherapy for the varieties of advantage its offers. The
present study conducted on mice offers some weightage to those
No : January 2003/03
Title : Studies
on Antimutagenic potential of Black tea and its constituents.
Subject : Toxicology
Faculty/Department: Department of Medical Elementology
Faculty of Science, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi
Name of the student: Pankaj Taneja(firstname.lastname@example.org)
Name of the Supervisor: Dr. Yogeshwer Shukla(email@example.com).
Name of the Co-Supervisor : Dr. Sarwat Sultana(firstname.lastname@example.org)
Address of the Co-Supervisor: Chemopreventive and
Laboratory, Department of Medical Elementology
Faculty of Science, Jamia Hamdard,
Source of Funding : National Tea Research Foudation, Calcutta
Date of viva: 16th January, 2003
tea (Camellia sinensis) is one of the most popular and commonly
consumed beverage worldwide possessing many chemopreventive
properties. In the present set of investigations antimutagenic
potential of Aqueous black tea extract (ATE) and Black tea
polyphenols (BTP) was evaluated.
Antimutagenic activity profile of ATE and BTP was notified
towards Benzo(a)pyrene [BaP] and Cyclophosphamide [CP] in Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100 tester strains. The
induction of his+
colonies by above mutagens was found to be inhibited by black
tea. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations, micronucleus
formation, and SCE’s induction by BaP/CP was reduced by ATE/
BTP administration in bone marrow cells of Swiss albino mice.
The anticytotoxic potential of ATE and BTP was also evidenced by
increase in the status of mitotic index. In addition black tea
also exhibited protection in germ cell in dominant lethal
mutation assay. Decrease in the number of living implants by BaP
and CP was found to show increment by ATE and BTP treatment. The
post implantation losses induced by BaP/CP were found to be
reduced by ATE/BTP. The frequency of dominant lethal mutations
induced by BaP/CP in different mating weeks was notified to
inhibited by ATE/BTP. Hence the study depicts that black tea has
potential in suppressing mutagenicity and cytotoxicity in microbial
and mammalian somatic and germinal test systems.
No : January 2003/04
and Phytochemical Appraisal of Some Herbal Drugs of Indian
Name of the Student: Mr. Parwaiz Akhtar
Departmant/Faculty : Department of Botany, Faculty of Science.
Supervisor : Dr. M. P. Sharma
Co-supervisor : Prof. Mohd. Ali, Faculty of Pharmacy
Source of funding : None
Date of viva voce : January 10, 2003.
The present study
pertains to detailed pharmacognostical and phytochemical
investigation of four herbal drugs namely: ‘Funduq’ Corylus
colurna (Betulaceae), the officinal part of the drug is
fruit used in Unani system of medicine as a brain and intestinal
tonic, aphrodisiac and expectorant; ‘Kurchi’ Holarrhena
antidysenterica (Apocynaceae), the stem bark is used as a
principal remedy in cases of various types of diarrhoea and
dysentery and this drug is generally adulterated or substituted
with the bark of Wrightia
tomentosa and W.
Alpinia galanga (Zingiberaceae), the rhizome is commonly used for
many respiratory ailments in the indigenous system of medicine
and this drug is usually substituted with A.
officinarum and ‘Aatrilal’ Ammi majus (Apiaceae)
the fruit is an officinal part used in powdered form in the
indigenous systems of medicine for the treatment of leucoderma
with promising results and the fruit of this drug is mostly
substituted with its allied species A.
Macro- and microscopical characters, behaviour of powdered drug on
treatment with different chemical reagents, fluorescence
values, ash values and preliminary phytochemical tests were
carried out to study the distinctive features of the drugs. Such
parameters provide basis for standardisation/characterisation
of genuine drug.
Detailed chemical analysis of fruit of
‘Funduq’ resulted in the isolation of four chemical
compounds, namely colurnasterol glycoside, b-sitosterol
glycoside, campesteryl glycoside and corylusterol glycoside. Two
compounds: (i) 20-b-hydroxycampesterol-3b-D-glycopyranoside
(colurnasterol glycoside) and (ii) chloest-5-en b,
(corylusterol glycoside) have been reported for the first time
from a natural or synthetic source. From the bark of
‘Kurchi’ four compounds were isolated which are
holardysenterine A (1), holardysenterine B (2), holardysenterine
C (3) and holarkolavene (1). These compounds have close
resemblance to conessine, principal alkaloid, but differ in
their orientation of C21 –methyl groups. Of
these four compounds, one compound holardysenterine B (2) has
been reported as new epimer of conessine and established as 3 b-dimethylamino-19b-21a-methylcon-5-ene.
Rhizome concentrate of ‘Khulanjan’ on steam distillation
yielded 11 volatile constituents. 10 constituents were
completely identified. Of the eleven constituents,
citronellyl acetate. n-tridecane, geranyl acetate, eincosanol,
n-docasane, n-docosan-8-ol have been reported for the first time
in the oil. Steam distillation of ‘Aatrilal’ fruit
concentrate revealed the presence of 53 compounds, of which 43
compounds have been identified after the analysis of the
isolate, comprising 86.8% of total volatilates including 5
partially characterised compounds (ca 4.8%). The most abundant
classes of the compounds are 14 monoterpenes (37.3%) and 19
sesquiterpenes (20.2%). Piperitone (10.0%) has earlier been
reported from Pakistan sample of A.
majus but could not be detected in our sample.
limitation encountered in the use and research of traditional
medicine is the lack of standardisation and quality control of
raw material forming the drug. The ultimate objective of the
pharmcognostic investigation is identification of the genuine
crude drug and determining the extent of
adulteration/substitution, if any. Advancement in recent years
in pharmacognosy, phytochemistry and physicochemical
instrumentation techniques can be of immense value in removing
this major shortcoming of traditional medicine. These techniques
can be utilised for correct botanical identification of plants.
The details of organoleptic, macro- and microscopic characters,
various evaluative parameters, fluorescence analysis, results of
preliminary and detailed phytochemical analysis established in
the present study will facilitate in identifying the genuine
drug from any substitute or spurious samples and will also be
useful in preparation of monographs on these plants.
No. February 2003/01
“PRODUCTION, CHARACTERIZATION, CHEMOSELECTIVE HYDROLYSIS AND MOLECULAR
GENETICS OF EXTRACELLULAR MICROBIAL LIPASE”
Name of Student: Mr. Manish Kumar Tripathi (email@example.com)
Department: Centre For Biotechnology, Faculty Of Science
Supervisor: Dr. P.K.Roy, Deputy
Director, Fermentation Technology Div., Central Drug
Research Institute, Lucknow-226001, U.P., India. (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Co-Supervisor: Prof. S.K.Jain, Centre For Biotechnology, Jamia
Hamdard, Hamdard University, New Delhi – 110 062 India. (email@example.com)
Source of Funding: CSIR
Date of viva voce: February 24, 2003
importance of thermostable and alkaline lipases is growing
rapidly, since these enzymes are relatively stable as well as
are capable of carrying out diversified reactions. The inability
of the plant and animal lipases to meet current world demands
has led to an increased interest in microbial lipases.
Microorganisms represent an excellent source of enzymes owing to
their broad biochemical diversity and their susceptibility of
genetic manipulation. Lipases have a large variety of
applications mainly in the detergent, cosmetic, drug, leather,
paper, food industry and in several bioremediation processes. So
owing to their vast and varied applications newer microbes are
to be screened for production of lipases of desirable
properties. Cloning and sequences analysis of the lipase gene
will help to understand the structure and activity relationship
of the enzyme, which will enable researchers to tailor new
lipases for biotechnological applications.
of lipase producing microorganism from soil, Optimization of
process variables, Physico-chemical characterization and purification of the enzyme
producing microorganism, identified by MTCC (IMTECH, Chandigarh)
as Streptococcus sp.
(N1) was isolated from soil using enrichment technique. To the
best of our knowledge, to date there is no report available on
lipase from genus Streptococcus, and more than hundred species and subspecies of Streptococcus
are listed on Taxonomy browser at NCBI site (Taxonomy ID: 1301).
The isolate Streptococcus sp. (N1) has been given Taxonomic ID: 167506 at the
Taxonomy browser at NCBI site. A two parameter complete
experimental design for optimization of carbon and nitrogen
sources was applied. Other requirements such as soyameal,
potatoflour, trace elements and parameters such as pH,
temperature, inoculum age etc. were optimized to give a maximum
production of 3.54 x 103 lipolytic units per ml of
fermentation broth in 48 h.
biochemical properties namely pH optima and stability,
temperature optima and thermal stability, organic solvent
stability, activation and inactivation by different metal ions,
detergents and inhibitors were studied. The enzyme activity was
maximum between pH 8.0 and 8.4 and was stable between a pH range
of 5.0 – 10.5 upto 96 h. 37oC was the optimum
temperature for N1 lipase. The majority of tested metal ions had
no inhibitory effect on N1 lipase activity except Hg2+.
The activity of the lipase was influenced by DEPC, whereas PMSF
had little effect. Enzyme stability was affected by PMSF. No
effect of EDTA was seen on enyme activity and stability. Streptococcus sp. N1 lipase retained 100% activity on incubation
with Protenaise K for 90 min. No effect on stability was
observed on incubation with organic solvents. An
electrophorically homogenous lipase having specific activity of
295.3 X 103 U/mg and 361 purification fold has been
obtained. The mol. Wt. of purified lipase was deduced to be 44.7
experiments on biotransformations
are today enzymes of choice for organic chemists, pharmacists,
biophysicists and biochemists. Lipase from Streptococcus
sp. N1 has been successfully used for different
biotransformation reactions using medicinally important CDRI
compounds such as Loganin, Acetyl protected D-ribose and
cloning, sequencing and analysis of Lipase gene
bp from mesophilic soil isolate Streptococcus
sp. (N1) having structural lipase gene have been cloned in
vector pBst II KS at EcoRI
site (MCS) using genomic library approach. Southern
hybridization confirmed the origin of insert from the host.
Lipase producing recombinant clone C1N1
conferred a stable lipolytic phenotype. Full length sequencing
was performed adopting the strategy of subcloning, end terminal
sequencing, designing of primers for over lap and orientation.
The 3489 bp fragment is having four significant ORFs. ORF-1
having a size of 1032 bp is giving signatures with alpha/beta
hydrolase fold [104-325] and Esterase/lipase/thioesterase family
active site [78-168]. ORF-1 is the structural lipase gene and
encodes a protein of 343 a.a. with theoretical mass of 38.6 kD,
and pI of 9.31. The instability index was computed to be 34.73,
which classifies the protein to be stable. Streptococcus
sp. N1 lipase contain highly conserved pentapeptide (G-X1-S-X2-G)
containing the active site serine (G-H-S-I-G) [151-155]. This
has been identified as interfacial lipid recognition site in
several lipase sequences from prokaryotic and eukaryotic
organisms. It also contain another consensus seuqnece (His-Gly)
[84-85] in the N-terminal part of the enzyme. The searches made
on databanks showed it to be novel sequence. The predicted amino
acid sequence are giving significant homology with cold adapted
lipases of antarctic psychrophiles Moraxella
sp. TA144 (lip 3) and Psychrobacter
immobilis B-10 (lip 1). ORF-2 of 642 bp is giving signatures
with GDSL lipolytic enzyme [34-116] and ORF-3 of 729 bp with ABC
transporter family [45-232]. The nucleotide sequence has been
assigned Genbank Accession No. AF 395190.
No. February 2003/02
on non-enzymatic antioxidants of fish with special reference to
their use as biomarkers of aquatic pollution”
Name of Student: Mr. Suhel Parvez (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Department: Medical Elementology & Toxicology, Faculty of
Supervisor: Dr. S. Raisuddin (email@example.com)|
Source of funding: Ministry of Environment &
Forests & Indian Council of Agricultural Research
(Government of India)
Date of viva voce: February 07, 2003
recent years, the impact of aquatic pollution on human and
animal life has become a matter of great concern. Fish responses
have been used as biomarkers of aquatic pollution. The use of a
suitable biomarker with different degrees of specificity is an
important aspect of environmental monitoring based on
biomarkers. In this
direction an effort has been made to develop the biomarker
responses as an early warning signal in pollution assessment.
Studies were conducted on the different sites of river Yamuna
for assessing the pollution profile. The oxidative responses, as
well as antioxidant potential of fish differed in relation to
species, habitat and feeding behaviour. The levels of heavy
metals and pesticides were also found to be in varied
concentrations at different sites. When comparisons were made
between two sites, (Yamunanagar and Mathura), results revealed
that Mathura site was more polluted compared to Yamunanagar. The
water samples of Yamunanagar did not show any traceable amount
of heavy metal and pesticides when compared to that of Mathura
sample. The results obtained provide an insight for the
assessment of non-enzymatic antioxidants at two different sites
for their successful use as biomarkers.
attempt was also made to study protein carbonyl as a biomarker
of exposure in fish. Use of protein carbonyl has been well
documented in humans and rodents. Till date no study has been
reported in case of fish. The present study has shown a
biomarker approach using the protein carbonyl content in fish. A
significant increase in protein carbonyls have been observed in
all groups of fish exposed to different pesticides. Assay of
carbonyl groups in proteins provides a conventional technique
for detecting and quantifying oxidative modification of
proteins. A study was
undertaken to investigate the modulatory role of copper on
non-enzymatic antioxidants viz., protein and non-protein thiols,
ascorbic acid and metallothionein. It was also intended to
investigate possible regulatory role of copper on iron in fish.
The findings of the present investigation provided a new insight
into the multifarious role of low-level exposure to copper in
fish. It seems to protect the fish from peroxidative damage by
inducing both non-enzymatic antioxidants and possibly
antioxidant enzymes by the induction of ceruloplasmin and
metallothionein. Findings of this study will be helpful in
pollution monitoring and identification of pollutant-sensitive
and pollutant-resistant Indian fish species. It will enable us
to predict the pollution profile of an aquatic habitat viable
for fishery activities. It will also contribute to the
development of a battery of mechanism-based biochemical assays
that can be used to characterize the complex mixtures of
chemicals in different potentially toxic environments and thus
enhance our ability to assess the long-term risk of
environmental contaminants to human health.
No. March 2003/01
Title: “ Characterization and
Standardization of Some Traditional Plant Drugs.”
Name of the student: Sageer Ahmad Khan
Name of the supervisor: Dr. Javed Ahmad
Date of Viva Voce: 27-03-2003
In the following paragraphs the
anatomical and phytochemical characters of root, leaf and flower
drugs of six selected plants species have been described for the
purpose of the standardization with their physical constants and
pharmacognostical standards. There is resurgence of interest in
ethnobotany and plants are reemerging as a significant source of
new pharmaceuticals. The present research will certainly lead to
systematic documentation of traditional knowledge and other
Willd. (Mimosaceae) is a small or medium sized deciduous tree
upto 6-8 meter in height. It commonly occurs in west land and
open forest. The plant is highly medicinal having astringent,
demulcent, aphrodisiac and anti-syphilitic properties.
and microscopic characters of the flowers of A.
leucophloea show that
there are numerous, globose, small, pale yellow, sweet scented
heads. Solitary rhombohydron crystals are distributed in various
regions of the peduncle, mainly in cortical parenchymatous cells
and between the vascular bundles.
constants include: loss in weight up to 6.05% on drying at 105 °C.
The solid content, crude fiber, total ash, water soluble ash,
acid insoluble ash, sulphated ash and total alkaloids were
reported up to 55.24%, 30.08%, 8.5%, 3.6%, 1%, 0.30% and 0.03%
(C12 H22 O11) was isolated from
the flowers having m. p. 186-188 °C.
is a bushy shrub upto1.5-4 m in height. It is distributed
throughout tropical and sub tropical areas. The decoction
product of the flowers is said to be blood purifier and also
regarded as tonic.
and microscopic characters of the flowers of C.
haematocephala are studied in detail. Pinkish red and
scarlet powder puff like heads are very common. Pericycle
contains a continuous and composite ring of 3-5 layers of
hexagonal, thick walled sclerenchymatous cells in the peduncle
chemical constants show loss in weight on drying at 105 °C
up to 10.69%. The solid content, crude fiber, total ash, water
soluble ash, acid insoluble ash,
sulphated ash, and total alkaloids were found up to
53.70%, 27.72%, 5.56%, 1.57%, 0.82, 0.02% and 0.06%
(C28H58) isolated from the flowers having
m. p 60-620 C.
(Ethretiaceae) is a shrub upto 3-5 m in height. It also occurs
commonly in India. A decoction of the fresh roots is given in
Macro and microscopic characters
of the leaves of E. aspera
have been studied. The leaves are
3-10 x 2-6.5 cm
in length, elliptical-oblong in shape, petiole 5-20 mm long.
Stomata of anomocytic type, stomatal index (15), vein
termination numbers (9-15), vein islet numbers (10-18) and
palisade ratio (6-10) have been recorded.
Physico- chemical constants show loss in weight up to 85.3%
on drying at 105 °C.
Crude fiber, total ash, water soluble ash, acid insoluble ash,
sulphated ash and total alkaloids were measured and reported up
to 49.5%, 10.67%, 2.57%, 1.06% 0.51% and 0.06% respectively.
isolated from the leaves of this plant having m.p 196-1980C.
(Mimosaceae) is a large erect shrub over small tree upto 1.8-9.0
m in height. It is distributed in tropical regions. The bark of
this plant is eaten for internal pain in Assam. The leaves are a
good source of protein and carotene.
Macro and microscopic characters
of the leaves are studied. The leaves are bipinnate, 10-25 cm
long, cauline and ramal. The taste is bitter and its odour is
characteristic, stomatal index (12-20) and vein termination
numbers (3-6) are recorded. The vascular bundles are arranged in
horseshoe shape manner as shown in the transection of the
Physico- chemical constants show
loss in weight up to 91.4% on drying at 105 °C.
The solid content, crude fiber, total ash, water soluble ash,
acid insoluble ash, sulphated ash and total alkaloids were
reported 49.9%, 37.39%, 11.27%, 4.87%, 1.02%, 0.53% and 0.05%.
The impure compound from the leaves could not be
Linn.(Aizoaceae) is a diffuse, prostrate, branched herb, upto
30-65 cm long. It is found mostly in tropical regions. It is
attributed with analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, CNS
depressant and stomachic properties and used in asthma,
bronchitis, jaundice and oedema.s
and microscopic characters of the root of T.
portulacastrum (white variety)
are studied. The roots are small, fusiform, ranging between
8-18 cm in length. The Colour is yellowish white, odour is
pungent and bitter in taste. Cluster crystals occur in some of
the cortical cells of the root. Anomalous structure is also
Physico-chemical constants show
loss in weight up to 5.5% on drying at 105 °C.
The solid content, crude fiber, total ash, water soluble ash,
acid insoluble ash, sulphated ash and total alkaloids were
reported 35.6%, 41.5%, 10.5%, 7.7%, 1%, 0.51% and 0.05%.
The compounds isolated from the
root are b-sitosterol,
stearic acid, palmitic acid and potassium nitrate.
Muell Arg. (Euphorbiaceae)
is an evergreen shrub and found throughout the tropical regions
of India. Kamala
powder alone is applied over syphilitic ulcer. It is also used
as an anthelmintic, vermifuge and purgative medicine.
and microscopic characters of the commercial sample of the drug
under the name kamala show
that it is a granular brick-red powder. Microscopic examinations
of powder reveal that it is a fine, purplish red or brick red
powder consisting of no cellular structure.
Physico-chemical constants show
that the maximum percentage of the extract is found in
chloroform (13.7%) and minimum in methanol (3.12%). Loss in
weight on drying at 105°C
was found up to 4.31%. The solid content, total ash, water
soluble ash, acid insoluble ash and Sulphated ash were found to
be 90.85%, 53.51%, 0.17%, 45.72%, and 20.55%.
Rottlerin has been found in dark
brown rhombic crystals, m. p.203-205 °C.
No. March 2003/02
Title : “Studies on the synthesis and characterization of
oil epoxy from non conventional
Name of Student: Mohd Aslam Khan (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Department: Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science
Supervisor: Dr. Najm Zaheer Khan (email@example.com)
Co-Supervisor: Dr. Sharif Ahmad (JMI, New Delhi)
Date of Viva-voce: 29th March 2003
the last two decades, the synthesis of polymers from renewable
resources has attracted considerable attention of research
workers throughout the world because of the escalating prices of
petrochemicals and high rate of depletion of the natural mineral
resources. This necessitates a look at the renewable natural
resources that can serve as alternative feed stock for monomers
of the polymer industry. In this respect the oils of certain
seeds, hold considerable promise as a source of unsaturated
hydrocarbon, an excellent starting material for epoxidation and
subsequent polymer production. The main objectives of the
present studies was to epoxidized the unsaturated oil by in situ peracetic acid and cure it with conventional hardener like
polyamide which was further modified by blending with natural
polymers like starch and alike polymers to develop biomaterials.
A detail investigation of the modified materials was carried out
by various techniques/methods. The modified materials or blended
materials were evaluated for their physico-chemical, mechanical,
spectroscopical and thermal behaviour. A detail study of their
external stimuli responsive characteristics was also carried
of oil, its characterization, epoxidation and further
characterization of the epoxidized oil by physico-chemical
analysis, GC, Gel Permeation Chromatography, FT-IR, NMR, DSC
& TGA were studied. Molecular weight and polydispersity was
determined by GPC. The epoxidized oil were found to be of low
molecular weight with a polydispersity of unity showing that
ECTO & EJCO had a fairly homogeneous structure and that ECTO
is of high molecular weight than EJCO.
and blending of epoxidized oil: ECTO with polyamide and natural
polymer i.e., starch or gum acacia respectively. The cured &
blended products have been characterized by spectroscopic
techniques; FT-IR and 1H-NMR, DSC, TGA and Mechanical
strength as well as various physico-chemical tests were carried
out. FT-IR & 1H-NMR spectroscopic techniques
confirmed the curing of epoxidized Chukrasia
tabularis oil with polyamide. The curing took place at the
site of oxygen ring resulting in epoxy ring opening which is
accompanied by prominent peak disappearance of 1H-NMR
signal at d
= 2.9 ppm, the characteristic peak of epoxy ring present in the
epoxidized oil of Chukrasia
tabularis. Mechanical strength was tested for the blended
polymeric films where the EP (epoxy-polyamide) cured films
showed very flexible as compared to the starch blended films
which showed brittleness in characters. The blended polymeric
films developed were studied for its swelling behaviour at
different temperatures, pH, ionic strength, types of buffer. It
was investigated that all the polymeric films or hydrogels
showed maximum swelling in acidic medium. The equilibrium and
oscillatory swelling behaviour have also been investigated in
response to change in the pH of the swelling media.
low molecular weight soluble polymers were synthesized by
tabularis oil with monocarboxylic acid in the presence of
tetrabutylammonium halide salt (catalyst). The in
vitro biocompatibility based on the epoxy-polyamide/starch
blended polymers was investigated. It was observed that for the
selected cell line cultured on the polymer do not induced
No. April 2003/01
Title: Molecular regulation of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A
reductase in Artemisia
for Biotechnology, F/o Science
Name of student
Dr. M.Z. Abdin
Prof. S.K. Jain
Date of viva-voce
is still a major health problem in many developing countries.
The parasite responsible for the vast majority of fatal malarial
infections is Plasmodium falciparum. The
first effective antimalarial drug was quinine, which was
isolated from the bark of Cinchona.
Since then malaria has been treated with quinoline based drugs
such as quinine, chloroquine, mefloquine and primaquine.
Unfortunately, many Plasmodium strains have now become resistant
to these drugs. Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene-lactone is a novel antimalarial drug isolated from Artemisia
annua . It may meet the dual challenges posed by drug
resistant parasites and rapid progression of malarial illness.
The relatively low yield of artemisinin is, however, a serious
limitation to the commercialization of this drug. Hence,
optimization of artemisinin yield either in
vivo or in vitro
is highly desirable. One of the approaches to enhance the
production of this compound in vivo is through the regulation of rate limiting enzyme(s) of its
biosynthetic pathway employing both exogenous and endogenous
has recently been shown that isoprenoid compounds are produced
via two pathways. Plastid isoprenoids are formed via the novel
pathway or Rohmer pathway, while cytosolic isoprenoids like
sesquiterpenes, triterpenes, polyterpenes and sterols produced
via common biosynthetic pathway i.e. acetate-mevalonate.
Henceforth, to confirm the role of alternate pathway in
artemisinin biosynthesis, feeding experiments were performed by
us with radioactive precursors. The results obtained in these
studies strongly suggest that artemisinin is synthesized via
acetate/mevalonate rather than Rohmer pathway. Isolation and
assay protocols of HMG-CoA reductase, the key enzyme of acetate/mevalonate
pathway, for A. annua L. leaves were standardized. The HMG-CoA reductase activity
and artemisinin content were monitored in the leaves of A.
annua L. at different phenological stages and a strong
correlation was observed between the enzyme activity and
artemisinin content throughout the growth period of the crop.
The combined application of 100 ppm growth hormones (IAA+GA3)
at the vegetative stage resulted into optimum activity of
HMG-CoA reductase and the higher contents of artemisinin as well
as its immediate precursors, viz. artemisinic acid and
arteannuin B. The in vivo
and in vitro
regulations of HMG-CoA reductase activity were studied employing
exogenous (light and temperature) and endogenous factors
(precursors and products of isoprenoid pathway). Both these
factors were significantly modulated the activity of this enzyme
both in vivo as well
as in vitro conditions. Finally, the enzyme was purified and
characterized from the leaves of A.
annua L. plants. One major band of molecular weight of 60
Kda was present in 45-60% (NH4 )2 SO4
fraction while absent in other (NH4 )2 SO4
fraction. This fraction also showed the maximum HMG-CoA
reductase activity. This band, therefore, may represent the
HMG-CoA reductase protein. Six fold purification of the enzyme
was achieved by (NH4)2SO4
precipitation. The thiol compounds were found necessary for the
long term stability of HMG-CoA reductase enzyme.
No. April 2003/02
Studies on regeneration in chicory (Cichorium
intybus L.) and transformation by Agrobacterium
Name of Student: Reiaz-Ul-Rehman
Name of Supervisor: Dr. M.Z.Abdin
Name of Co-Supervisor: Prof. P.S.Srivastava.
Date of viva-voce :
16 April, 2003
remains a less space for the medicinal plants to be cultivated
at large on the existing agricultural land, as it is mainly used
for the production of crops to meet the demand for feeding
ever-increasing population. Among the options remaining for the
cultivation of medicinal plants are the marginal lands, which
are infested with various kinds of stresses such as salt and
drought. Molecular biology has proved a strong tool and many
gene products have been identified from various organisms which
confer to them the resistance and /or tolerance against abiotic
stresses. These genes provide an opportunity for the
biotechnologists to manipulate and explore the possibilities to
improve upon the medicinal plants so that they can be profitably
grown on the marginal lands. The work carried out by us is an
effort in this direction, where we have mobilized tobacco
osmotin gene via Agrobacterium
tumefaciens mediated genetic transformation in chicory (Cichorium
intybus L.). Our results confirm the integration of osmotin
gene in the chicory genome and its role as osmoprotectant has
achieve micropropagation of chicory various hormonal
combinations (Auxin and Cytokinin) with or without growth
adjuvent, Casein Hydrolysate (CH) were tried. Based on the
percentage callusing, regeneration in cultures , growth and
morphology of plantlets the hormonal combination; IAA(2mM)
+ CH (1000mgl-1) was found optimum.The
micropropagated plantlets were transferred to pots for
acclimatization so that they can sustain and survive in the
natural conditions. The in
vitro cultures of transformed and non-transformed chicory
were found to accumulate the secondary metabolite, esculin at
different morphogenetic stages. The concentration of esculin in in
vivo grown plants was compared with different developmental
stages of in vitro
grown cultures. No significant difference in the esculin content
was observed, when comparison was made among cultures of
transformed and non-transformed chicory. 1.5 fold increase in
esculin content was however,
observed in in vitro grown plantlets when compared with in vivo grown plant at flowering stage. The Agrobacterium mediated transformation protocol was optimized
considering all the factors for successful transformation. The
maximum inhibitory concentration of selectable marker
(Kanamycin:150mgl-1) was established. The leaf
segments of chicory were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium
strain (GV2260) harbouring osmotin gene in the plasmid pBinAR
tagged with 35S CaMV promoter. The transformed explants were
regenerated on the selection medium optimized for regeneration
of chicory. After selection of, the transformants, the putative
transgenics were characterized employing molecular biology
techniques viz. PCR-utilizing the gene specific primers of
osmotin and nptII. These putative transformants were further
tested for the presence of osmotin using non-radiolabelled
southern blotting of PCR amplified DNA with nptII specific
primers, as it was part of the cloning casette of osmotin gene.
The southern blotting confirmed the successful integration of
the osmotin gene.
validate the performance of these putative transgenics,
physiological and biochemical assessments were made employing
leaf disc assay on salt solution. The leaf discs from transgenic
chicory plants showed less senescence over the marked period and
retained more chlorophyll than those from non-transformed
plants. Also proline, the biochemical marker of osmotolerance in
plants accumulated upto 90% higher in the transgenic plants as
compared to wild type, at 250mM NaCl. These results confirm the
over-expression of the osmotin gene in transgenic plants and
their improved tolerance when exposed to salt stress.
No. May 2003/01
"Purification and physico-biochemical characterization of
Faculty : Science
Name of student : Mr.
Supervisor : Prof.
M. A. Baig
Co-Supervisor : Dr.
Date of viva-voce : 21-05-2003
catalyses the physiologically vital oxidation of sulfite to
sulfate, the terminal reaction in the degradation of the sulfur
containing amino acids, cysteine and methionine.
importance of an active sulfite oxidase was emphasized by the
discovery of a child apparently lacking hepatic sulfite oxidase.
Genetic deficiency related to human sulfite oxidase
is associated with severe clinical abnormalities namely
mental retardation, seizures, characteristic dysmorphic features
and dislocated lenses. The urine of patient contains abnormally
large amount of S-sulfocysteine, sulfite and thiosulfate and
virtually no inorganic sulfate, making the enzyme of biomedical
The main objectives
of the work presented in this thesis were, screening of some
plant leaves and
different tissues of goat for
the presence of sulfite oxidase, isolation and purification of
the enzyme from the source showing
activity and physico-biochemical characterization of the enzyme.
was found to have highest activity amongst all goat tissues in
which the sulfite oxidase activity was determined. Similarly,
leaves of Syzygium cumini
showed highest activity amongst all five plant leaves screened
for sulfite oxidase activity. Sulfite oxidase from goat liver
has been purified to homogeneity by using number of techniques.
Ninety- three fold purification was achieved with a yield of 7%.
absorption spectrum of enzyme indicated the presence of heme in
the sulfite oxidase. Circular dichroic spectra showed the characteristic spectra of proteins in far
UV region. Secondary structures of sulfite oxidase were also calculated to be
45 % a-helix,
anb 26% b-turn.
size of sulfite oxidase was found to be 113 kDa and size of
subunits of the enzyme was found to be 56 kDa. Sulfite oxidase
is composed of two subunits of equal size. The hydrodynamic
properties, stokes' radius was determined to be 5.01 nm and
frictional ratio, ¦/¦o,
was found to be 1.57.
pH and temperature optima for sulfite oxidase were found to be
8.5 and 25 °C
respectively. Sulfite oxidase
showed appreciably less activity in phosphate and
carbonate buffers when compared with Tris-Cl buffer under same
parameters, Km and Vmax were found to be
10-4 M and 0.5824 nmoles/mL/min respectively.
Ferricyanide was 8 times more effective electron acceptor than,
physiological electron acceptor, cytochrome c. A number of salts
had inhibitory effect on sulfite
oxidase activity and inhibition caused by these salts were mixed
absorption spectroscopy indicated
the presence of molybdenum and sodium dithionite reduced sulfite
oxidase showed characteristic spectrum of b5 heme,
indicating the presence of heme in goat liver sulfite oxidase.
sequence analysis from N-terminal end was done. The
sequence was found to be
oxidase from plant leaves of Syzygium
partially purified. The absorption spectrum indicated that heme
prosthetic group is not present in plant sulfite oxidase. The Km
and Vmax for plant sulfite oxidase were found to be
10-3 M and 19.23 nmoles/mL/min respectively. Analysis
revealed that there is no homology between animal and plant
No. June 2003/01
Title: “Plants bearing anti-Salmonellae activity:
Molecular and immunological evaluation of their role in
protection against typhoid.”
Name of the student: Kishwar Hayat Khan
Department/Faculty: Centre for Biotechnology, Faculty of Science
Supervisor: Prof. S.K.Jain
Source of funding: Indian council of Agriculture research (ICAR)
and Central Council of Research on Unani Medicine (CCRUM)
Date of Viva Voce: June 20, 2003
Typhoid fever is
a prolonged febrile illness caused by bacterium Salmonella
typhi. It is acute generalized infection of
reticuloendothelial system, intestinal lymphoid tissue and gall
bladder. Salmonellosis can be experimentally induced in mice by Salmonella
typhimurium. The pathogenesis of enteric fever has been
studied using S. typhimurium infection in mouse as
the animal model and for S. typhi in naturally
infected humans and in volunteers. Typhoid fever is
characterized with high fever with chills, diarrhoea,
inflammatory response in the peyer’s patches, enterocolitis,
headache, anorexia, weakness, dizziness, muscle pain, abdominal
cramps, liver damage and change in the level of enzymes of
oxidative stress. The treatment used against this disease was
antibiotic and vaccination which has severe side effect. This
lead us to explore natural plant products which is cheap, easily
available and has no side effects.
In the present
study a number of plants extracts were screened out for their
antisalmonellae activity in vitro against S. typhi and S.
typhimurium. Six plants exhibit antisalmonella
activity showing a very clear zone of inhibition. Extracts
obtained from Emblica officinalis and Terminalia
chebula exhibit potent antisalmonellae activity as indicated
by their zone of inhibition. Minimum inhibitory concentration
(MIC) of the above two plants extracts were then determined
against S. typhimurium. The result encouraged to perform
bactericidal kinetic assay by using the lyophilized juice of Emblica
officinalis (EO) and water extract of Terminalia
chebula (T) against
typhimurium. EO at a concentration of 5 mg/ml exhibits no
effect where as 10 mg/ml of it was bacteriostatic for 10 hour
and then it retards the growth of bacteria. The same extract at
a dose of 20 mg/ml was bactericidal. T at a dose of 10,12 and 15
mg/ml was bacteriostatic and above 15 mg/ml was highly
bactericidal. The above in vitro study claimed the drugs to be
used against S. typhimurium infection in vivo.
pretreated with lyophilized juice of Emblica officinalis
at a dose of 500 mg/kg body wt (EO500) for 30 days exhibit
full protection against 2x LD50 dose of S.
typhimurium where as pretreatment with water extract of Terminalia
chebula at a dose of 500 mg/kg body wt (T500) for 30 days
exhibit full protection against 1x LD50 dose of S.
typhimurium. Studying the clearance of bacteria from
reticuloendothelial system and serum enzymes viz, SGPT and SGOT
then supported this study.
pretreated with EO500 and T500 for a period of 30 days followed
by challenge with sublethal dose of S. typhimurium
exhibit an increase in the total leucocytes and lymphocyte
count. Delayed type of hypersensitivity is considered as an in
vivo manifestation of cell-mediated immune response, and
development of a positive DTH reaction is correlated with
protective cell-mediated immune response. Treatment with EO500
and T500 exhibit an increase in foot pad swelling significantly
(p<0.01) as compared to saline treated control animals at 48
hour followed by a decrease in swelling at 72 hour.
Both the above
doses of drugs exhibit an increase in lymphocyte proliferation
typhimurium. Thus both plant exhibit immunomodulatory
activity against experimentally induced salmonellosis.
imbalance in the level of enzymes of oxidative stress viz lipid
peroxidation, xanthine oxidase, catalase, glutathione content,
glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase when the
animals were infected with S. typhimurium. Animals
pretreated with EO500 and T500 followed by challenge with S.
typhimurium nullifies the effect produced on the enzymes of
Both EO and T
exhibit pharmacological activity viz anti-inflammatory,
antipyretic and analgesic activities.
Thus the above
plants extract exhibit antisalmonellae activity. Pretreatment of
animals with the above drugs prevent the animals from
salmonellosis by immunomodulation as well as balancing the level
of enzymes of oxidative stress and through various
No. June 2003/02
of Diabetes Mellitus and its Modulation by Drugs”
Name of the student: (Dr.
Deptt of Pharmacology
Faculty of Pharmacy
New Delhi - 110062
Supervisor: Prof. K.K.Pillai
Date of Viva Voce: June 23, 2003
the past decade, there has been increasing scientific and public
interest in the so-called antioxidant hypothesis. In general,
the reducing environment inside cells helps to prevent oxidative
damage. This reducing environment is maintained by oxidative
metabolism and by the action of antioxidant enzymes and
substances, such as glutathione, vitamins E and C, enzymes such
as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase etc, which serve to
remove the ROS. Current hypothesis favor the idea that lowering
oxidative stress can have a clinical benefit. Reports about the
status of antioxidants and scavengers as defense mechanisms in
diabetic patients are very contradictory. Both increase and
decrease antioxidant activity are reported. Studies evaluating
the various serum circulating antioxidants in diabetes are still
conflicting. It is not known whether oral treatment with
antioxidants can reduce oxidative stress in patients with type2
study was undertaken to assess the status of lipid peroxidation
and to evaluate various antioxidants (Melatonin, Silymarin and a-Lipoic
acid) in experimental diabetes mellitus. It appears from the
observations of the UKPDS that monotherapy with any oral agent
either fails at the outset or will fail overtime. It is often
necessary to use multiple drugs for an optimal outcome. We have
studied the effects of various antioxidants alone and in
combination with gliclazide. Gliclazide was used as a reference
drug because it has both insulin releasing and antioxidant
is mainly used in sleep disorders and jet lags. Frequently
melatonin is prescribed for NIDDM patients along with oral
antidiabetic drugs. However, the possible outcome of this
combination therapy is not reported in the literature. Silymarin
is a flavonoid extracted from the milk thistle of Silybum
marianum. It is a free radical scavenger and a membrane
stabilizer, which prevents LPO and its associated cell damage in
some experimental model. Similarly, this concept is further
examined in an experimental model of diabetes mellitus, using
thioctic acid (a-Lipoic
acid) for protection. Potential mechanisms for antioxidant
intervention are explored in the above studies.
ultimate goal of the study was to illustrate the therapeutic
potential of antioxidants for treatment of the diabetes
diabetic state, in both humans and experimental animals, is
associated with oxidative stress. Diabetes and its complications
present a serious medical and socioeconomic problem. The
management of diabetes has changed significantly during the past
half century. The current strategy to combat diabetes focuses on
increasingly stringent control of hyperglycemia to prevent or
modify the onset and progression of the disease and its
complications. Because of the therapeutic limitations of
hypoglycemic therapy in practice, further interventional
strategies must be developed. In addition to elevated blood
glucose levels, increased production of reactive oxygen species
(free radicals), which are known to exhibit direct tissue
damaging properties, may contribute to a number of diabetic
complications and to the development of insulin resistance
deleterious species can be neutralized by endogenous and
exogenous antioxidant substances such as vitamins A, E, C,
flavonoids (Silymarin), polyphenols, carotenoids, alpha lipoic
acid and other nutrients present in food and beverages.
Increased oxidative stress in diabetic patients
appears to be related to the underlying metabolic abnormalities,
and is also an early stage in the disease pathology that may
contribute to the development of complications. Therefore, in
addition to control of blood sugar, control of oxidative stress
offers another avenue for the treatment of the disease. The
present research work summarizes the current knowledge of the
pathogenic role of oxidative stress in the
onset and progression of diabetes and its complications
and presents the results of studies aimed at modulating
oxidative stress through the use of anti oxidants in
main finding of the study on Silymarin was that it prevented a
rise in both blood glucose and pancreatic lipid peroxidation (LPO),
induced by STZ in rats.
in extension of this work, silymarin showed a dose dependent
protective effect on STZ induced diabetic dyslipidemia.
Silymarin improved the lipid profile (by decreasing the levels
of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL and VLDL and
increasing HDL cholesterol) and restored the liver glycogen
content in STZ diabetic rats.
effect of B-20 drops, a homoeopathic formulation, on lipid
peroxidation, liver glycogen content and microscopic structure
of pancreas and liver in STZ diabetes was studied. The study
demonstrates the dose-dependent reduction in blood glucose
levels and TBARS levels in the pancreas of STZ diabetic rats.
effect of simultaneous treatment with gliclazide and melatonin
in n-STZ diabetic rats was evaluated. Gliclazide alone and also
in combination with melatonin were administered to NIDDM rats.
The influence of the above treatment on LPO and glucose levels
modulatory effect a-LA,
a naturally occurring compound and a radical scavenger was
studied in vivo in STZ induced oxidative stress and
Based on the observations made from these
studies, it is concluded that, oxidative stress, antioxidants
and the antioxidant network can be relevant to diabetes because
diabetes appears to involve oxidative stress. The relevance of
oxidative stress mediated mechanism, in this context, may be
more appropriate. Antioxidants, vitamins, drugs or diet rich in
natural antioxidants would enhance the longevity of life by
increasing the threshold, sparing co-enzymes for detoxification
pathways during early stages of diabetes, delaying the onset of
diabetic complications and may be useful as supportive therapy
at later stages of the disease.
No. July 2003/01
Chemistry and antihepatotoxic activity of Silybum marianum,
its active constituent silymarin and related synthetic analogues
containing 1,4 dioxane ring system.
Subject: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Name of the student: Shah Alam Khan
Dept: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Supervisor: Dr. Bahar Ahmad
Co- supervisor: Dr. Anees A. Siddiqui
Date of viva: 11th July 2003
Liver disease is a leading cause of death in many countries
and the causative factors are alcohol consumption, malnutrition,
aneamia, hepatotoxic drugs and infections etc. The liver, a
vital organ instrumental in metabolism, detoxification and
elimination, is responsible for protection of human body against
adverse effects of drugs, chemicals, toxins, bacteria, viruses
and parasites etc., but in the process liver itself is under
threat and obviously needs protection.
So far no effective measures are
available for the treatment of liver diseases. The different
medical, surgical and therapeutic methods used at present are
inadequate with generally poor results. Also some of the modern
drugs which are given to treat liver diseases may themselves
cause liver damage.
It is therefore, imperative to
search alternative drugs for the treatment of liver diseases to
replace the existing currently used drugs of doubtful efficacy
Phytochemical investigation and
antihepatotoxic activity of Silybum marianum:
Silybum marianum Linn. (Carduus
marianus), family: Asteraceae, a medicinal plant widely used
in traditional European medicine for the treatment of various
liver ailment, was selected for phytochemical and
pharmacological investigation to establish the efficacy of plant
extracts, and various isolated constituents as potent
50 Kg seeds of S. marianum
were dried and crushed to coarse powder which was then
exhaustively extracted with ethanol by cold percolation. The
crude alcoholic extract was fractionated into Pet. Ether (900
gm), Ethyl acetate (800 gm) and Methanol (300 gm) soluble
The different compounds like
silybin a1, silybina2, silybin b1, silybin b2, and various
steroids were isolated and characterized on the basis of IR, UV,
NMR and Mass spectral data.
One of the isolated compound,
silybin was treated with Boron trifluoride in diethyl ether and
change in stereochemistry was studied. The studies suggested
that proton of ring C of silybin became Trans from Cis, and
orientation of proton at position 8’’ in 1, 4 dioxane ring also
changed from b to a.
The various extracts and isolated
compounds were evaluated for antihepatotoxic activity in albino
rats by using CCl4 as toxicant. The degree of
protection was measured by performing histopathological studies
and by estimating various biochemical parameters. Like SGOT,
SGPT, ALKP, TP & TA. The methanolic extract showed good
antihepatotoxic activity, which was comparable to effects
produced by standard drug silybon- 70. The other two extracts,
Pet. ether and ethyl acetate also showed moderate protection.
All the isolated compounds showed
better protection than standard drug, however among all the
isolated compounds, SK –16 and SK-1 were found to be most potent
Synthesis and antihepatotoxic
activity of compounds containing 1,4 dioxane ring system:
Silymarin (silybon-70), a
hepatoprotective drug is a mixture of three isomers namely
silybin, silychristin and silydianin. Among the three isomers
silybin is the most potent antihepatotoxic agent. On analyzing
the chemical structure of 3 isomers, it was observed that
silybin contains 1,4 dioxane ring system in its structure,
however this ring is absent in other two isomers. Thus the
hepatoprotective activity possessed by silybin can be attributed
to the presence of 1,4 dioxane ring system in its strucuture.
We therefore, thought worthwhile
that 1,4 dioxane ring system might play an important role in
exhibiting antihepatotoxic activity. Thus on the basis of above
finding a number of heterocyclic compounds like flavones,
xanthones, coumarins and chalcones etc. possessing 1,4 dioxane
ring in their molecule were synthesized. The synthesized
compounds were screened for antihepatotoxic activity against CCl4
intoxicated albino rats, by estimating biochemical parameters.
The synthesized compounds were simple, low molecular weight and
could be easily synthesized in lab. For incorporating 1,4
dioxane ring the free ortho dihydroxy compounds were condensed
with either ethylene bromide to obtain unsubstituted benzo 1,4
dioxane derivatives or with epichlorohydrin to obtain 2-
hydroxymethyl benzo 1,4 dioxane derivatives in presence of aq.
Among the synthesized compounds
the flavono dioxins were found to be the most potent compounds
as they decreased the elevated levels of SGOT, SGPT, ALKP and
TA, and increased the decreased level of TP. The effects
produced by flavono dioxins were comparable to standard drug
silybon 70. The dioxino coumarins showed moderate results
followed by dioxino xanthones and chalocone derivatives.
The above studies suggested that both flavone moiety and 1,4
dioxane ring along with 2- hydroxy methyl group in the side
chain could exhibit potent antihepatotoxic activity and in turn
could be used for treatment of various ailments of liver. The
synthesized compounds are low molecular weight and could be
easily prepared. On the other hand silybin is a complex molecule
and thus can not be prepared easily. Furthermore the synthesized
compounds are expected to be easily metabolizable in comparison
to silymarin, being simple and low molecular weight.
Summary No. July 2003/02
Title: “Evaluation Of Mustard
Oil As A Health Oil In Rat Model”
Faculty/Department: Department of Medical Elementology and
Faculty of Science, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi
Name of the student: Parul Batra
Name of the Supervisor: Dr. Fakhrul Islam (firstname.lastname@example.org)Source
of Funding: Council of Scientific and
Industrial Research (CSIR), Govt. of India
Date of viva: July 30, 2003
aim to take up this study was the recent controversy on the use
of mustard oil in our country. Mustard oil contains high amount
of erucic acid and glucosinolates that, according to few
reports, are toxic to experimental animals. The use of Indian
mustard oil is discouraged in the International market due to
its high erucic acid and glucosinolate content. Western
countries including U.S. have banned the use of Indian mustard
oil thus effecting export of this oil. To solve the controversy
this study was conducted to evaluate the toxicity of high dose
(50 calorie % in fat free diet) of mustard oil, unboiled and
boiled (185-190 ºC for 15 min) with other edible oils (corn oil
and sunflower oil) for 3, 6 and 12 months. The lipid profile in
serum, heart and aorta of male wistar rats were carried out.
Serum was also used for the liver function and kidney function
tests. Histopathological responses of twelve month rat heart and
aorta tissue were investigated.
No significant alterations were observed in the content of serum
cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol,
high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, total cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol
ratio, cholesterol:phospholipid ratio, serum glutamate
oxaloacetate transamimnase, serum glutamate pyruvate
transaminase, bilirubin, creatinine and blood urea nitrogen
levels after giving mustard oil (unboiled and boiled), corn oil
and sunflower oil in the diet for 3, 6 and 12 months. No
toxicity with mustard oil either boiled or unboiled was
Cholesterol, phospholipid, ganglioside and esterified fatty acid
levels were analyzed in heart and aorta tissues of experimental
animals. The total cholesterol levels were decreased
non-significantly with sunflower oil in rat heart. Also there
was non-significant decrease in esterified fatty acid levels in
rat heart with sunflower oil. Cholesterol-phospholipid ratio in
heart remained unchanged with all the edible oils throughout the
study. The pathological changes observed in rat cardiac muscle
fibres given 50 calorie % unboiled and boiled mustard oil in fat
free diets for twelve months revealed majority of cardiac muscle
fibres normal except a few muscle fibres with pyknotic nucleus
and early degenerative changes. However cardiac pathology was
not reflected in serum biochemistry of these rats. No changes in
cardiac muscle fibres were observed in corn oil and sunflower
cholesterol levels was decreased non-significantly with all the
edible oils after three months but increased after six and
twelve months of study in rat aorta. Also there was
non-significant depletion in the content of esterified fatty
acid in rat aorta with sunflower oil. No significant alterations
were observed with all the edible oils in the content of
cholesterol, phospholipid, ganglioside and esterified fatty acid
in rat aorta. Aortic cholesterol-phospholipid ratio remained
unchanged with all the edible oils after three, six and twelve
months. Pathological examination of the aorta of rats given 50
calorie % unboiled and boiled mustard oil, corn oil and
sunflower oil for twelve months showed a smooth intima with no
macroscopic evidence of atheromatous lesions. Our study
indicated no toxic symptoms of mustard oil (unboiled or boiled).
significant changes in these parameters were observed in either
of the experimental group of animals. Mustard oil has been found
equally as effective as corn oil and sunflower oil in reducing
plasma total and LDL Cholesterol levels in rats.
is healthy as it has 30 per cent protein, calcium, phytins,
phenolics and natural anti-oxidants. Mustard oil contains high
amount of mono-unsaturated fatty acids and a good ratio of
polyunsaturated fatty acids, which is good for heart.
Mustard oil contains the least amount of
saturated fatty acids, making it safe for heart patients.
the pungent principle in mustard oil, has anti bacterial, anti
fungal and anti-carcinogenic properties, which account for many
medicinal utilities of the oil.
The modern concept is to take a
mix of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fat based cooking
oils. These include sunflower oil, groundnut oil, corn oil,
safflower oil and mustard oil. The relatively high level of
oleic acid and the favorable balance between linolenic and
linoleic acids is present in mustard oil.
It may be concluded that it is
the safest oil and is as good as any other edible oil.
Summary No. August 2003/01
Title : Biochmical characterrisation of responses of mustard
(Brassica juncea L. Czern and Coss) genotypes to cadmium stress
: Centre for Biotechnology, Faculty of Science
Name of student : Ms. Shaista Qadir
Supervisor : Dr. M.Z. Abdin
Co-Supervisor : Dr. Saleem Javed
Date of viva-voce : 08-08-2003
Over the last
century human activities have resulted in an unprecedented
increase in the level of pollutants, e.g., salinity, ozone
levels, pesticides, fertilizers, temperature elevations as well
as heavy metals in the environment. Heavy metal pollution of
soils is currently a serious environmental problem, because
these metals are potential risks to humans. Among the heavy
metals, Cd is of increasing scientific interest because of its
unique physical and chemical characteristics. Cadmium belongs to
group IIB of periodic table, with atomic no 48, atomic weight
112.41, sp. gravity 8.64 g/cm3 and melting point 3210C.
Cadmium pigments are found to be unreactive towards chemicals,
high temperatures, ultra violent radiation, as well as organic
and inorganic solvents. Because of these properties it is widely
used in a large number of industrial applications like
manufacturing of Cd-Ni batteries, coating of stablizers,
paintings, and alloys. This has raised its level in the soil
from the normal, 500µg Kg-1 to 500 mg Kg-1.
Cadmium is highly toxic to living systems even at very low
concentration. It accumulates in the human body with a half-life
exceeding more than 10 years. It is responsible for a number of
diseases like pulmonary emphysema, demineralization of bones,
renal dysfunction, and is categorized as a probable human
carcinogen. In plants, it is responsible for a number of
physiological breakdowns and even crop failures. Because of
these adverse effects of Cd on living system, attempts are being
made to minimize its levels in the environment. Traditional
methods are expensive, environmentally invasive and labor
intensive. So new technology “Phytoremediation” was
introduced, which is not only cost effective but also protective
to humans as well as to the environment.
Plants used for
phytoremediation must tolerate high levels of metals and
translocate the metal in the aboveground part of the plant. To
understand the mechanism of Cd tolerance, its accumulation and
translocation, we undertook this study with ten genotypes of B.
juncea, a high biomass accumulating crop plant
belonging to the family Brassicaceae. The study was completed by
considering and analyzing the effect of Cd on growth,
phytochemical and biochemical processes of these genotypes
including enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Further, SDS-PAGE
and TEM have also been used to characterize/distinguish the
tolerance mechanism(s) using resistant, moderate and susceptible
genotypes. Our study revealed that accumulation of Cd in B.
juncea cv. Pusa Jai Kisan was highest among all the
genotypes studied. Cadmium had induced oxidative stress in all
the genotypes, but with varying magnitudes. Minimum MDA,
accumulation was observed in cv. Pusa Jai Kisan and maximum in
cv. Vardhan. Minimum reduction in biomass accumulation, plant
height, chlorophyll degradation and maximum levels of protein,
proline, ATP-sulphurylase activity, non-protein thiols,
phytochelatins, glutathione levels and high activities of
antioxidant enzymes like SOD, APX. GR were reported in cv. Pusa
Jai Kisan. Transmission electron micrograph of chloroplast and
mitochondria isolated from this genotype showed minimum damage
to these organelles by Cd-stress as compared to other genotypes.
Further, over expression of 66 kDa protein band and induction of
two new bands viz, 54kDa and 36kDa were observed in this
genotypes. The genotype, B. juncea cv. Pusa Jai Kisan,
hence, was resistant, while B. juncea cv.Vardhan
susceptible to Cd stress among all the genotypes studied. Our
results suggest that high tolerance of B. juncea cv. Pusa
Jai Kisan to Cd-induced oxidative stress could be due to the
increased level of antioxidant system as well as stress induced
proteins in this genotype. The findings of our study thus can
find application not only in phytoremediation of heavy metals,
but also in developing resistance/tolerance in various crops by
transferring these biochemical traits using conventional and
Summary No. August 2003/02
Topic: Studies on Parkinson's Disease:
Search for Therapeutic Agents From Herbs
and Herbal Drugs
Student: Muzamil Ahmad (email@example.com)
Supervisor: Dr Fakhrul Islam (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Date of viva voce : 30 August, 2003
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is an age-related disorder,
more common in senior citizens than in younger ones. The disease
is accompanied by the symptoms like rest, tremor, bradykinesia,
rigidity, stooped posture and instability. The proper cause of
this disease still remains a mystery, despite the role of
oxidative stress, free radical formation, genetic
susceptibility, programmed cell death and some unknown factor,
which may be endogenous or exogenous. The disease progresses
slowly and may ultimately produce complete akinesia. The
neuropathology of the disease is based on the depigmentation and
cell loss in the dopaminergic nigrostriatal tract of the brain
with the corresponding decrease in the striatal dopamine
concentration and the presence of eosinophilic inclusions called
Current pharmacological therapies for the disease are
inadequate; these are only able to provide symptomatic relief
and after long use produce stern side effects and even worsen
are being used since antiquity in folklore and indigenous
systems of medicine to treat disease from mild headache to
dreaded cancer. They are preferred choice because of their easy
accessibility and the notion that they are safer than synthetic
drugs, which however, may not be always true. The safety of
herbal drugs is only relative but the population feels more
assured because of their long and wide spread usage and their
familiarity with the plants. Knowledge from the use of medicinal
herbs and their active ingredients serve as the foundation for
much of the modern pharmacology. In recent times herbal
medicines are gaining priority in developed pharmaceutical
market because of availability, safety and no major regulatory
controls. This study was an attempt towards search for effective
and safe alternatives from herbs to protect PD.
Three herbal drugs
Ginkgo biloba, Nardostachys jatamansi and
Withania somnifera were studied for anti-parkinsonian
effects in Wistar rats. These herbs were selected after a
extensive survey of the literature for the purpose and advice
from the practicing physicians of Unani and Ayurvedic systems of
medicine. There are ample reports in the literature for these
plants to be used in various neuro-disorders in clinical and
experimental studies, beside their use in folklore against
various health conditions. The parameters of study included: (a)
Behavioural studies (b) Biochemical/enzymatic estimations (c)
Dopaminergic D2 receptor binding assays (d)
Catecholamine quantifications and (e) Immunohistochemical
induced in the rats by injecting 6-OHDA into the right striatum
stereotactically. Lesioning with 6-OHDA resulted in significant
enhancement of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reduction in the
content of glutathione (GSH) and reduced activities of its
dependent enzyme system (i.e. glutathione-s-transferase,
glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase) along with
that of superoxide dismutase and catalase. There had also been a
marked up regulation of Dopamine D2 receptor binding
and a decrease in the content of dopamine and its metabolites (dihydroxyphenyl
acetic acid and homovalinic acid). All the changes were further
emphasized by the reduced expression of tyrosine hydroxylase, a
marker enzyme for PD, in the ipsilateral striatum of lesioned
rats as confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Pre-treatment with
test drugs for three weeks, prior to lesioning, markedly
reversed all the behavioural, biochemical, neurochemical and
It is premature to
propose the mechanism(s) involved in the observed anti-parkinsonian
effects of the herbal drugs studied, and at the same time we do
not consider that these effects were elicited through a single
mechanism. On the basis of present findings and reported
properties of test drugs, it is proposed that these agents
improve overall physical and mental performance through
antioxidant, anti-stress, immunomodulatory and adaptogenic
effects; furthermore, animal model used for the disease do not
simulate the precise clinical event as most of the behavioural
deficits can never be observed in animal models, but are still
relevant for elucidating the mechanisms and testing the efficacy
of various therapeutic agents. In spite of these limitations, we
consider the findings to be very encouraging with good anti-parkinsonian
potential and advocate that these plants for further
investigations. Undoubtedly elucidation of proper molecular
mechanisms and deciphering appropriate genetic pathways can go
a long way in emphasizing our studies.